Art 111 Short Answer Questions Exam #3

20-30 of these questions will appear on the exam either as slide identification questions or as a list of questions for you to answer. Answers to these questions should also be incorporated into your essay




1.     How does the art of Venice differ from that of Rome and Florence?


2.     What types of subjects did the Venetians paint?


3.     Why did the Venetians focus on color (colorito)?


4.     Describe and image that is an example of a sacra conversazione (sacred conversation)?


5.     Why was the Bellini family important in the development of Venetian art?


6.     What is Arcadia? (not the location but the idea)


7.     What is poesia?


8.     Who is considered the “Supreme master of color” of all the Venetian artists?


9.     What painting surface did Titian adopt?


10.  Describe Titian’s approach when applying paint.


11.  How does Titan balance the nude in “Venus of Urbino”?


12.  How does Titian’s Venus of Urbino compare to Giorgione’s Sleeping Venus (compared in class)?


13.  What techniques did Titian use to transform Venus into a contemporary rather than mythological figure and how does this change the interpretation of the painting?


14.  Who were Titian’s major patrons and how did their commissions help advance his career?


15.  Why was Veronese’s Christ in the House of Levi rejected by the patron (content and formal elements)?


16.  What ancient structure influenced the Villa Rotunda and what modern structures are modeled after it?


17.  How were Palladio’s ideas spread?


18.  Which ancient architect did Palladio study when designing the Villa Rotunda?


19.  How is the Villa Rotunda symmetrical but also asymmetrical?


20.  How does the Villa Rotunda differ from Palladio’s typical design for country villas?


21.  Why were the Venetians able to create a variety of subjects?




22.  What key events lead to the Protestant Reformation?


23.  Who was Martin Luther?


24.  What effects did the Protestant Reformation have on art in Northern Europe?


25.  What techniques did Matthias Grunewald  use to increase the emotional response to his Isenheim Altarpiece?


26.  What was the purpose of the Isenheim Altarpiece?


27.  Why were Saints Sebastian and Anthony used in the painting?


28.  Who was considered the “Leonardo of the North” and why?


29.  Describe Durer’s painting techniques when painting portraits.


30.  What did Durer capture in his portraits?


31.  What printing techniques did Albrecht Durer master?


32.  What iconography is portrayed in Durer’s Adam and Eve?


33.  What classical references are made in Durer’s Adam and Eve?


34.  What tool did Durer use to create the images for his engravings and woodcuts?


35.  Why is the “Four Apostles” a Protestant painting? (both formal elements and content)


36.  Why did Hans Baldung go by the nickname “Grien”?


37.  What is the connection between Baldung Grien and Durer and how is this connection captured in Grien’s Death and the Matron?


38.  What is the content/message of Grien’s Death and the Matron and how is this enhanced by the formal elements and also subject matter in the painting.


39.  How did France differ from Germany in terms of painting styles?


40.  What is a chateaux?


41.  Describe the classical elements in the Chateau of Chenonceau.


42.  What took place at the Chateau and who was responsible for these activities?


43.  Describe the “modern” elements in the design of the west wing of the Cour Carree of the Louvre.


44.  Describe the French Flamboyant style elements in the wing (must go to chapter 18 to define style).


45.  Name a few characteristics of El Greco’s style? (note which styles he was introduced to during his travels)


46.  Identify and describe the two “spheres” are represented in “The Burial of Count Orgaz”


47.  What effect did El Greco achieve when he painted the upper and lower portions of the “The Burial…” differently? (how does it enhance the message of the painting)


48.  Why is the Burial of Count Orgaz and ideal counter reformation painting?


49.  Bosch’s Garden of Earthly Delights is a precursor of what style?


50.  Which influenced Bosch when designing the Garden?


51.  Describe the various symbolism in Bosch’s Garden (be specific in your answer)?


52.  Why is Bruegel’s Return of the Hunters pre-modern?


53.  What subject matter is Pieter Bruegel the Elder known for (2)?


54.  Why did Bruegel choose to highlight the working class?


55.  How did Bruegel “present” the characters in his paintings?


56.  What “talents” of Holbein’s are portrayed in his French Ambassadors?


57.  Describe the symbols and their meaning in Holbein’s French Ambassadors.


58.  How conflict is represented in Holbein’s French Ambassadors?


59.  What does anamorphic mean?


60.  What is the central message of the French Ambassadors?



61.  What Geographic locations make up the Baroque period?


62.  What historical factors influenced the rise of the various Baroque styles?


63.  What are genre paintings?


64.  Name three characteristics of the Baroque style.


65.  What other “occupations” (besides sculptor) did Bernini hold that influenced his style?


66.  Compare and contrast Michelangelo’s David and Bernini’s David, note the differences that make Bernini’s David baroque.


67.  Describe the formal elements in the Ecstasy of St Theresa that dramatize the event.


68.  What is a proscenium?


69.  How is the Cornaro Family represented in the St. Teresa Chapel?


70.  Describe the unique design of Borromini’s Church of San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane.


71.  What are composite capitals?


72.  What is a cartouche?


73.  What does the term tenebrism mean and what artist is associated with that term?


74.  Why was Caravaggio called the first “Bohemian” artist?


75.  What are the characteristics of the Caravaggio’s style?


76.  Why were the characters in Caravaggio’s paintings so controversial?


77.  What was the relationship between Caravaggio and Artemesia Gentilleschi?


78.  Who enabled Artemesia to enter the art world?


79.  Why is Artemesia sometimes referred to as the first feminist artist?


80.  Describe the characteristics of Artemisia’s style?


81.  What is the connection between Susanna and the Elders and Artemisia’s personal life?


82.  What image influenced the ceiling by Pietro da Cortona (Triumph of the Berberini)?


83.  Identify the iconography and its meaning in figure Cortona’s Triumph of the Barberini.


84.  What famous saying describes the Spanish Courts relationship with Spanish painters? (see powerpoint)


85.  Describe the manner in which Cotan displays the objects in Still life with Quince…. (composition) and any possible symbolism associated with the objects on display (use your imagination, why display them in thi manner?)


86.  What is a cantarero?


87.  What effect is Ribera’s paintings supposed to have on the viewer and how do they follow the “rules” of the Counter Reformation?


88.  What series did Ribera create that showed genre scene with underlying religious messages?


89.  Who were the main patrons of Zurbaran’s paintings?


90.  What are spiritual exercises (see Zurbaran’s Saint Serapion)


91.  Describe Velasquez’ early style.


92.  What are Bodegones?


93.  What design technique does Diego Velasquez use to manipulate space in Las Meninas?


94.  Las Meninas is a precursor of which modern style?


95.  What symbol appears in Las Meninas that marked the success of Velasquez (in his mind)?


96.  What visual elements were Rubens’s specialties?


97.  What will future artists appropriate (borrow) from Rubens?


98.  Describe some of Ruben’s secular works.


99.  What is Ruben’s connection to the Medici family?


100.        Why was Leyster considered a successful female painter?


101.        What subject matter was Leyster’s specialty?


102.        What did Leyster try to capture in her paintings?


103.        What did Rembrandt try to capture in his portraits?


104.        Describe Rembrandt’s brushstrokes.


105.        What various media did Rembrandt use during his career?


106.        What were some of the principles Rembrandt used when creating group portraits?


107.        What symbol represents the Civic Guard in Rembrandt’s Night Watch?


108.        Jan Vermeer specialized in what types of paintings?


109.        What type of “spaces” did Vermer paint?


110.        What instrument did Vermeer use to increase the realism in his painting?


111.        What effect did the use of this instrument have on the appearance of Vermeer’s paintings?


112.        Describe the symbolism in Vermeer’s Woman Holding a Balance and the overall message.


113.        What led to significant advances in botany in the Dutch region?


114.        Why were flowers important in the Dutch region?


115.        Describe the “enhancements” Ruysch added to her painting of flowers to appeal to patrons.


116.        What "nicknames" did Louis the XIV give himself?


117.        Who was supposed to be the recipient of Rigaud’s Louis XIV portrait and why was it never sent to Spain?


118.        Describe the symbolism in Rigaud’s Louis XIV portrait that reinforces his position as king.


119.         Describe the general layout of the Palace of Versailles?


120.        What techniques did the artists achieve in the Hall of Mirrors to enhance the power of the King?


121.        What is the Classical/Grand Manner style of painting (see Nicholas Poussin)?


122.        Describe the Grand Manner/Classical elements seen in St. John in Patmos and what is its overall message?


123.        How does Claude’s landscape style differ from Poussin?


124.        What themes repeat in Claude’s paintings?



125.        What is the Enlightenment?


126.        Who were the key thinker’s of the Enlightenment? (see powerpoint)


127.        What major social/political changes occurred in the western world as a result of the Enlightenment? (see powerpoint)


128.        What major inventions occurred that led to “progress” in the western world? (see powerpoint)


129.        Which “revolution” allowed for the rise in capitalism that ultimately led to greater independence for artists?


130.        What are the characteristics of the Rococo?


131.        Describe the Rococo elements in the Salon de la Princesse.


132.        Who was the leading French Rococo painter?


133.        What is a memento mori?


134.        What is a Fete Galante?


135.        What is the Academy?


136.        What is a Salon?


137.        How was late 18th century subject ranked from important to least important?


138.        Who were some of the leading women behind the Rococo and what term was used to describe them?


139.        What “rules” do “Poussinistes” and “Rubenistes” follow?


140.        Who were the patrons for Fragonard’s paintings?


141.        Why is Fragonard’s The Swing Rococo and also naturalistic?


142.        What statement is Fragonard making about social standards in The Swing?


143.        What is a Grand Tour?


144.        Describe the characteristics of pastel and the visual effects?


145.        Who were the patrons of Canalettos’ paintings?


146.        Which visual/formal element did Canaletto emphasize in his paintings?


147.        What is a capriccio?


148.        What is a vedute?


149.        Who was Joachim Winckelmann and what were his views on art?


150.        What two types of sculpture were Canova’s specialities?


151.        What “triumph of Venus” does the golden apple symbolize in Canova’s Pauline Borghese? (be specific)


152.        Why was Canova’s Pauline Borghese as Venus controversial?


153.        Define Neoclassicism and Romanticism.


154.        What are the similarities and differences between Neoclassicism and Romanticism?


155.        What is the Grant Manner in portraiture (see Sir Joshua Reynolds)?


156.        Describe the classical elements in Reynolds Lady Sarah… painting. (content and formal elements, detailed answer)


157.        Describe the connections between Joseph Wright of Derby and his Experiment… painting with key figures in the industrial revolution.


158.        Describe the Baroque element sin Derby’s Experiment.


159.        Describe the Neoclassical elements in Kaufmann’s Cornelia painting.


160.        What comment is Angelica Kaufmann making with her Cornelia Pointing . . . painting?


161.        Why is The death of General Wolf a constructed image?


162.        What religious image did West appropriate (borrow) when composing The Death of General Wolf?


163.        What legend is represented in Henry Fuseli’s Nightmare?


164.        How did Freud use Fuseli’s Nightmare?


165.        Describe the formal elements that enhance Fuseli’s Nightmare.


166.        What is the sublime?


167.        Describe the various media that was Blake’s specialties.


168.        What subjects did Blake probe in his prints?


169.        What duality is shown in Blake’s Newton print?


170.        Describe the classical elements in Copley’s Watson and the Shark.


171.        What is the message of the Watson and the shark story and how does it relate to the transatlantic slave trade?


172.        Why is Vigee-Lebrun’s image of Marie Antoinette a form of propaganda?


173.        Why was Vigee-Lebrun able to produce a large amount of paintings?


174.        Why (after being banished from England) was she able to continue to produce paintings?


175.        What is the Prix de Rome?


176.        What inspired David’s Oath of the Horatii?


177.        Describe the Neoclassical elements in the Oath


178.        What is the content of the painting and what effect did the patron hope it would have on the people of France?


179.        What was the public’s response to the Oath of the Horatii?


180.        What organizations did David belong to that transformed his paintings into political commentary?


181.        Describe the design elements that enhanced David’s Death of Marat.


182.        What is a Femme Fatale and who is the Femme Fatale in the Death of Marat story?


183.        Who was the original Femme Fatale?


184.        Renaissance art and sculpture is believed to have influenced David’s “Death of Marat” and in what way?


185.        How did David’s style change after he was released from prison and Napoleon came to power?


186.        Why did the founding fathers of the U.S. choose the Neoclassical style for its major buildings?


187.        Why was Thomas Jefferson considered a Renaissance man?


188.        What Venetian architect influenced Thomas Jefferson when building Monticello?


189.        How is Jefferson’s Montiello Neoclassical but also a distinctly American style building?


190.        What other structures is Jefferson noted for either influencing or having constructed?